Natural pastures on the outskirts of Lomé in Togo: Diversity, typology and forage quality
Ecological and botanical data analysis allow to evaluate the state and quality of natural pastures on the outskirts of Lomé. Phytosociological and ecological surveys were conducted on 43 plots. Inventory of woody species was carried out on area of 50 m x 20 m. Florula was performed on the plots of 10 m x 10 m following a linear transect of 10 m. Surveys and observations allowed to identify 264 plants species belonging to 67 families and 193 genera. Ten (10) forages species were found at the cattle markets where Panicum maximum and Milletia thonningii are the most used. 62 forages species have been found in natural grassland. Three types of pastures were identified: pastures of Lonchocarpus sericeus and Sporobolus pyramidalis (G1), pastures of Lonchocarpus sericeus and Paspalum scrobiculatum (G2), and pastures of Mitragyna inermis and Brachiaria deflexa (G3). G1 pastures contain 46 forage species with a high proportion of perennial fodder grasses (67.6 %). Their pastoral value is 71.6 %. G2 pastures have a wealth of 42 forage species. The contribution of “other fodder” is important (17.9 %). Its pastoral value is 66.15%. G3 pastures contain 22 forage species. Annual grasses (55.5 %) are the most abundant in these environments. Its pastoral value is 63 %.The outskirts of Lomé has considerable potential for livestock production. However, the surveyed pastures are being degraded.
Keywords: natural pastures, livestock, forages, pastoral value, urban outskirts, Lomé, Togo.