Conflicts over water resources arise mainly from disagreements over access and control over these resources. These conflicts are the result of an increasing demand of water resources and their endurance may cause violent reactions and environmental degradation. For several reasons, our analysis was based on game theory and more specifically on the prisoner’s dilemma game. This game theory is the most appropriate tool to really describe the actors behavior and is perfectly applicable to situations of over exploitation of a common resource insofar as it clearly shows the confrontation between the individual interests and the collective interests. Application of the game theory based on the prisoner’s dilemma has shown that farmers in the Tagant oasis have been able to manage water resources efficiently while avoiding all kinds of conflicts and quarrels. They were able to manage the exploitation of water resources through a local authority called Jemaa.

Key words: water resource, conflict, game theory, farmers, Tagant oasis